The course is divided into 2 modules: Morphological and Physiological Adaptation to Environmental Changes (9 credits) and Stress and Animal Welfare (6 credits). Students will learn how to manage a reintroduction and/or conservation translocations of wild species respecting animal welfare and optimizing their change to adapt to the new environment. In particular, the course aims at providing the basic concepts of stress physiology to understand the responses of different organs and systems, and the dynamics of integration between the different functions through the nervous and hormonal system to maintain the homeostasis of the animal organism during stressful events. In addition, student will learn the principles at the basis of morphological changes occurring in some animal apparatus over the course of the adaptation process, such as changes in body and extremity size, as well as skin and coat pigmentation, which may affect the overall fitness of individuals in their environment. Finally, the course will focus on the study of translocation physiology, as an emerging tool to help refining conservation translocation methods. Students will become familiar with the field-based measurements that can be used as indicators of the general health and well-being of individual animals or populations, and with the most appropriate measures and methods to be used to assess the adaptation of the released animals in the new environment. At the end of the course, students will be able to assess the degree of well-being and adaptation of wild animals following environmental changes.